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Status > ANNOUNCED - 13-Jun-2007
Start Date > 31-Mar-2007
Duration > 69 Months
Participating countries > GERMANY, SLOVAK REPUBLIC, POLAND, CZECH REPUBLIC
CIS Forschungsinstitut fuer Mikrosensorik und Photovoltaik GmbH
DR. DIETMAR STARKE > PROJECT MANAGER
Organisation type > Research Institute
The use of infrared sensors and cameras for measurement and inspection tasks is growing in industrial applications. In this context, the technical approach to deeper and deeper infrared spectral ranges calls for measuring thermally inducted changes in objectives and processes in the earlier stages, for example when used for monitoring the wheel bearings of high-speed trains. Such tasks can be carried out by infrared micro-sensors which are sensitive between 800 and 3,000 nm wavelengths, and applicable for investigations in the microscopic world. Hereby, the warranty of invariability of the micro-optical images by passing light energy through lens material is a criterion for optical quality. Essentially, interactions are afforded in connection with passing deep infrared light with high-energy density up to high-level radiation like high-performance diode lasers with high-energy density per square centimetre. Operating under conditions without significant heating requires micro-optical components that are based on material without single or multidimensional crystal dislocations. This problem addresses applications in connection with laser-aided confocal measuring procedures, or the SISCAN-method, a procedure enhanced by SIEMENS and used for measuring roughness of surfaces (Bauer, et. al., Inspect 1/2006, S. 78-79). Many semiconductor materials are optically active within the infrared spectral range between 800 and 3,000 nm and so are always usable as an infrared component. To ensure the above-mentioned criteria of quality, there is a requirement to grow semiconductor material using a crystal growth method, which is known for small crystal lattice defects. Such features provide the Vertical Gradient Freeze (VGF) method developed and well-appropriated for crystal growing procedures of semiconductor materials. The VGF method is based on crystallisation of the melt by electronically scrolling the temperature field. Unlike the current methods (Horizontal Bridgeman method /HB/ and Liquid Encapsulated Czochralski methods /LEC/), the following advantaged are expected (see ZENTRUM FUER FUNKTIONSWERKSTOFFE /ZFW/ GGMBH GOETTINGEN): * Round slices with circular features (not fulfilled by HB method); * Lower thermal gradient (1 - 5 K/cm) during the crystal growing process such as with LEC methods (60-150 K/cm) and consequently, a significantly smaller structural crystal defect density; * tuneable partial pressure of the V-component and therefore improved control of the stoichiometry and precipitation; * in-situ tempering of crystals during the cooling procedure; more efficient control of the temperature fields by multi-section heater, consequently being more economical as a result of longer crystals. comprising analysis of the ZFW (wwwuser.gwdg.de/~zfw/hlz/GAAS3.html) between commercialised LEC-GaAS and VGF material shows a ratio related to structural lattice defects (for example) of 65,000 / cmexp2 to 500 / cmexp2.
The European Research project VGF GaP - LEDs: IST-2001-32793 dealt for a time with application of the VGF (Vertical Gradient Freeze) methods to Gallium Phosphide (GaP) to produce lattice-defect free substrate for LED manufacturing (www.vgfgapleds.sk). The project partners PHOSTEC LTD from Slovakia, the SLOVAK ACADEMY OF SCIENCE, the TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY of BRATISLAVA and the CIS FORSCHUNGSINSTITUT FUER MIKROSENSORIK UND PHOTOVOLTAIK GMBH (non-profit) LTD, Erfurt (GERMANY) successfully completed the project with fabrication of VGF GaP single crystals. Consequently, the applicability of the VGF method for GaP could be proofed and verified. Up to now, no VGF GaP material is available worldwide. Gallium Phosphid (GaP) features a refraction index of 3.02 and is optically operating between 800 and 3,000 nm wavelengths (see www.ioffe.rssi.ru). Based on the knowledge and experiences gained from the European project 'VGF GaP LED's', the INFRASENS project is aiming at developing technological platforms for VGF GaP lens systems and their applications for measuring tasks. By combining technology and application research, the project will achieve a technological and economic advance in Europe in terms of shortening research and development and consequently strengthening the position of collaborative SMEs (Small and Medium sized Enterprises) in worldwide competition. These goals cover research and development activities for the following issues: * Development of reproducible VGF technology for GaP crystals; * Creating VGF wafer cutting methods to ensure a high rate of yields for the VGF GaP materials; * Building up a manufacturing platform for VGF GaP micro-lenses; * Elaborating a new computation tool for VGF GaP lens systems for the spectral range of wavelengths between 800 and 3,000 nm; * Building up a new sensor system for deep infrared measurements based on VGF GaP micro-optics; * Development of a demonstration platform for use of VGF GaP lenses and the Infrasens-Sensors under varying optical measuring principles (and additionally laser-aided and non-laser aided methods) for exploring new applications with measurable benefits. In an early stage, the demonstrator platform is focused on promising applications: - Acquisition and evaluation of relevant parameters for tools and components in machinery: film thickness, adhesion, film quality during PVD (Physical Vapour Deposition) coating processes of tools and components by means of a deep infrared sensor and adequate VGF GaP lenses. Operating conditions: low sampling rate and covering a temperature field up to 400 degrees Celsius. - Acquisition of temperature conditions at the operating site of the chipping tools when running manufacturing processes within a range of temperature up to 1,200 degrees Celsius. Consequently, the project comprises two interacting research blocks with each innovation level: a) Development of a reproducible VGF GaP technology for micro lenses and b) Development of a VGF GaP application platform for deep infrared between 800 and 3,000 nm including demonstration, validation and test. The following lists demonstrate the work distribution between the partners: MATERIALS RESEARCH: - PHOSTEC S.R.O. Zarnovica (SLOVAKIA) - SLOVAKIAN ACADEMY OF SCIENCE SAS Bratislava (SLOVAKIA) - INSTITUTE OF ELECTRONIC MATERIALS TECHNOLOGY ITME Warsaw (POLAND) and - INSTITUTE OF PLASMA PHYSICS AS CR (CZECH REPUBLIC) and - METRON (SLOVAKIA) and FhG IISB (GERMANY) as Phostec-Subcontractor. APPLICATION RESEARCH: - CIS FORSCHUNGSINSTITUT FUER MIKROSENSORIK UND PHOTOVOLTAIK GMBH (DE) - VISION & CONTROL GMBH Suhl (DE) - GESELLSCHAFT FUER FERTIGUNGSTECHNIK UND ENTWICKLUNG E.V. Schmalkalden (DE). WORK PACKAGES (WP) 0. Project coordination PARTNERS: CiS (DE) WP 1. Developing VGF Technology for GaP PARTNERS: PHOSTEC (SK) - Producing VFG-capable GaP poly crystals - Growing GaP single crystals by VGF-method - Guaranteeing VGF process control and reproducibility. WP 2. Producing Czochralski GaP for comparing measurements and polishing wafer and optical components PARTNERS: ITME (PL) WP 3. Physical and chemical analysis of the VGF-GaP materials PARTNERS: SAS (SK), ITME (PL) WP 4. Developing a new method for cutting VGF GaP ingots PARTNERS: PHOSTEC (SK) WP 5. Manufacturing of new optical lenses PARTNERS: IPP (CZ) WP 6. Design and computation of the optical lens system PARTNERS: V&C (DE) WP 7. Assembling the optical system and the infrared sensor PARTNERS: CiS (DE) WP 8. Developing evaluation board PARTNERS: V&C (DE) WP 9. Building up demonstrator platform PARTNERS: GFE (DE) WP 10. Result transfer and exploitation PARTNERS: CiS (DE) STATE-OF-THE-ART Currently, Gallium Phosphid is only available worldwide as LEC GaP, consequently LEC GaP material is also used for infrared lens systems, however due to the thermal invariance, the use is application limited. In particular, this refers to laser-aided applications. New solutions are required, mainly in connection with the use of laser-like confocal measuring methods. PROJECT INNOVATION The project innovation is aiming at developing basic methods in VGF technology for GaP, processing technology for VGF GaP and applications-oriented VGF GaP lenses. RISK ESTIMATION High risk due to the first worldwide production and application of VGF GaP, but controllable due to the successful experiences of the European project 'VGF GaP LED's'. PROJECT TARGET PANEL Based on initial market inquiries, the following target is envisaged: Single crystal wafer: 3 inches Doping: Undoped Orientation: both 100 and 111 Thickness: minimum 550 micrometers EPD (Electrophoretic Deposition): < 10exp3 / cmexp2 Absorption spectrum: at 800 - 3,000 nm as low as possible. DESCRIPTION OF MAIN ACTIVITIES The basic idea of the project is to develop a reproducible VGF technology for growing GaP, and to use these results for advancing in industrial applications. Due to the European VGF GaP LED's project, the partners are in a position and have the experience, know-how and equipment to tackle this objective. This is firstly addressed to the crystal growing procedure of PHOSTEC. A main issue related to GaP crystal growing using the VGF procedure is controlling the progression of the temperature field. The crystal growth laboratory at the FRAUNHOFER-INSTITUT IISB, the leading research unit in the field of crystal growth in Europe, developed a simulation tool for the VGF process for III-V crystal growth. PHOSTEC will use this software tool and derive relevant parameters from it for temperature field progress and transfer for specifications of the PHOSTEC growing melting crucible. The VGF GaP growing process will be permanently analysed physically and chemically on site by the SLOVAK ACADEMY OF SCIENCE. The main focus will be directed at analysis of the lattice. Due to the expected new features of the VGF GaP material, wafer cutting and processing micro lenses require appropriate technologies aimed at avoiding falsification or characterisation of the material. To validate and evaluate the new VGF GaP material for use as material for lenses, there is a clear need to build the lenses into a micro-optical sensor system operating in the deep infrared spectral range. This will be done by CIS, an experienced partner in sensor assembling. The GFE SCHMALKALDEN, a player in research and development in the field of measuring tool industries, a specific addressed demonstration platform will be built up integrating a flexible set up applicable for carrying out different optical measurement methods. This will be a benchmark for validation, evaluation and testing of the new VGF GaP lenses for different optical methods and modifications. All research and development activities are structured in a closed loop comprising all project stages, which means iterative knowledge growth after each loop. Following this method, the project team plans three VGF GaP crystal-growing periods, which will consist of at least 30 processes (runs) totally. In this context, the project consortium is setting the following milestones: M1: Delivery of VGF GaP Single Crystal Material (Ingot) in 3-inch sizes with 100 orientation after run No. 1; M2: Manufacturing VGF GaP wafers after run No. 1; M3: Manufacturing VGF GaP micro lenses according to requirement specification after run 1; Final Period: Ensuring reproducibility of manufacturing technology and redesign of manufacturing technology for improving quality parameters of VGF GaP optical lenses. The project consortium is setting milestones, as follows: M1: Delivery of VGF GaP Single Crystal Material (Ingot) in 3-inch sizes with 100 orientation after run No. 1; M2: Manufacturing VGF GaP wafers after run No. 1; M3: Manufacturing VGF GaP micro lenses according to requirement specification after run 1; M4: Assembling micro optical system of lenses and the infrasens sensor; M5: Completing the demonstrator platform; M6: Successful demonstrations of planned applications.
CIS Forschungsinstitut fuer Mikrosensorik und Photovoltaik GmbH
DR. DIETMAR STARKE > PROJECT MANAGER
Organisation type > Research Institute
In accordance with its expertise in the field assembly of micro-sensors, CIS' contribution is thematically focused on building up the micro-optical lens systems and the infrasens sensor as a whole. In this context, CIS will produce an off-the-shelf line scanner which is sensitive in deep infrared between 800 and 3000 nm with the assembled VGF GaP lenses system and an information processing chip, which will be provided by the partner company VISION & CONTROL based on suitable micro mounting technology. CIS will concentrate activities in micro assembling on three functional levels: - micro joining of the VGF GaP micro lense system; - mini bumping and mini joining of the line scanner with A/D (Analogue/Digital) converter and digital signal processing chip and; - mini assembling the components for infrasens sensor. Following the miniaturisation requirements of the infrasens-sensor and others, and given the new VGF GaP material features, novel challenges related to the assembly and joining technology are expected. This mainly concerns the micro bumping and micro joining techniques. Potentially, additional layers textured micro technically are afforded by the new features of the VFG GaP material to ensure functionality of the infrasens sensor. Therefore, for the assembling technology, two aspects need to be taken into account - the different functionality of the different levels resulting from the computation of the micro optical lens system and the material characteristics of the different components given. Consequently, analysis and trials for alternatives are essential.
The Institute is an accepted market-oriented non-profit institution providing R&D services for micro-sensor development solutions, from the design to the prototype stage. The Institute has special expertise in design, system development, and wafer processing. Assembly and wiring systems, testing, analysis and sensor calibration is concentrated on the following core areas: - optoelectronic sensors, - chemo-capacitive sensors, - piezo-resistive pressure sensors, - multi-structure engineering, - services. Optical and chemo-capacitive principles of action as well as most diverse layer characteristics support a variety of sensor solutions. The Institute manufactures for example: * encoder components, * radiation detectors, * sensors for moisture, dew points, condensation, * gas and biosensors, * pressure sensors for applications in mechanical engineering and electronics, HVAC (Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning), environment monitoring, automotive engineering, building, medicine, the pharmaceutical industry and biotechnology. The emphasis on research and development is on product development, such as: - Climate sensors for mass applications, - Condensation micro-sensors, - Encoder assembly for mass application, - Improved reflected light modules for gas and moisture detection, - System integration of sensors and ASICs (Application-Specific Integrated Circuit), and - Technological projects, such as: modular optical assemblies, on the stray-field capacitor system, on the silicon-on-insulator system for high-temperature environments, on HF (High Frequency) measuring systems and the automation of such systems. Special experiences in managing and coordinating multinational projects are available.
DR. JOZEF MATUSKA > MANAGING DIRECTOR
Organisation type > SME
WORK PACKAGE 1 Developing VGF Technology for GaP (WP-leader: PHOSTEC S.R.O.) This work package will be oriented to the technology development of VGF GaP single crystals with 75 mm diameters and with the required parameters. The work will consist of two levels: synthesis of polycrystalline material already with 75 mm diameter and subsequent single crystal growth. This development includes equipment design, layout of a technology scheme and a technological process trial. In order to optimise parameters of the growth process for GaP polycrystalline and single crystals, the characterisation of material will be realised in cooperation with the project partners ITME and SAS. VGF technology requires the development of graphite heater assemblies with appropriate geometry and with precise and stable temperature controls. The aim of the project is that the whole process will be running automatically under PLC (Programmable Logic Controllers) control, where hardware and software required will be developed. For modelling the temperature fields during the VGF process and for the optimisation of crystal growth, the CRYSMAS will be used. This was developed at the FRAUNHOFER INSTITUTE IISB, Erlangen, and is able to calculate all modes of heat transfer: - heat transfer by non-linear conduction, - heat transfer by radiations using view factors, - turbulent heat flow in a high pressure gas atmosphere. The CRYSMAS will also be used for tuning the process timetable - time dependence of electrical power of individual heaters with the help of so called inverse calculations. The computing of temperature fields, the gas convection and the turbulence will compromise several pressure steps, and in every pressure step a convergent solution must be found. After such computations, the tuning of gas circulation by subsequent lowering of the convection parameters will follow, until gas circulation that is near to reality is found. At this time, the inverse calculations will start. Along the crucible axis, the points with desired temperature values will be set and CRYSMAS will calculate the electric power input for individual heaters. Such calculations could last several weeks. The results will be time dependence curves for heater inputs on solidification positions along the front of the crucible axes. Produced VGF GaP ingots will be grinded to a desired diameter, and then cut into wafers or cylinders needed for manufacturing infrared optics. According to the design from other project partners, the infrared optic elements will be polished by ITME and manufactured by the company METRON, SLOVAKIA, which is PHOSTEC's supplier. The quality of METRON's work is assured with many years of long tradition in optics production stemming from the former mother company MEOPTA CZECHOSLOVAKIA.
The company was established in 1996 for the purpose of product and equipment research, development, production and sales of phosphor based semiconductor materials. PHOSTEC's pioneering and established personnel are highly educated in the specialised field of microelectronics. The main objective of PHOSTEC is to develop and produce technology, applying the latest facts discovered in the semiconductor industry, for the production of bulk phosphide semiconductor materials such as polycrystalline indium phosphide InP and polycrystalline / single crystals of gallium phosphide GaP. As such technologies are not commercially available, part of this work is also propriety design and development for the necessary equipment. It is a relatively young company, but PHOSTEC activities are based on many years of experience in the field of semiconductor manufacturing process of one of the establishing team members. Since its establishment, PHOSTEC has built a production laboratory with all necessary equipment such as air ventilation and filtration techniques, a deionisation water station, technological gases' high pressure lines, digesters and so on. Since 1998, PHOSTEC has been developing production equipment for the semiconductor crystal grown using the Vertical Gradient Freeze method. In the framework of this work, PHOSTEC has developed and produced a high-pressure reactor suitable for the synthesis or single crystal growth of A3B5 phosphides. Activities carried out are grouped as follows: - Mechanical engineering design of equipment required; - Manufacturing of equipment - PHOSTEC is equipped with its own mechanical workshop for manufacturing graphite parts and smaller steel parts. Bigger parts or high-pressure reactor chambers are produced in cooperation with mechanical engineering companies in the SLOVAK REPUBLIC; - Design of graphite heater systems; - Chemical vapour deposition (CVD) of graphite parts, mainly the deposition of pyrolytic graphite (pG) and pyrolytic bor-nitrid (pBN) thin layers; - Design and installation of technical gases' high-pressure lines; - Design and manufacturing of electrical supply sources including technological process control systems. Besides the semiconductor production, PHOSTEC is also offering services in the field of the above-mentioned CVD. The pG and pBN depositions are solved and are in operation. In the development are pSi3N4, pSiC and pB4C depositions. The layers deposited on the surface of the graphite parts extend the life span of the parts and give them new usability features.
SLOVAK ACADEMY OF SCIENCES/ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING INSTITUTE
DR. SC. JOZEF NOVAK > HEAD OF DEPARTMENT OPTOELECTRONICS
Organisation type > Research Institute
WORK PACKAGE 4.1 Subtask in physical and chemical analysis of the VGF-GaP materials (WP-leader: SAS, Institute of Electrical Engineering - SLOVAK ACADEMY OF SCIENCES). The Institute will provide electrical characterisation of GaP materials by application of Hall measurements and the van der Pauw method (carrier mobility, resistivity, Hall constant, type of the dominant conductivity). Optical parameters (photoluminescence, band gap energy, transmission) will be evaluated in a wide temperature interval (4.2K up to room temperature) with the aim of evaluating the influence of the input technological parameters on the final properties of the VGF-GaP materials. TOF-SIMS (Time of flight - Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometra) method together with the TEM (Transmission Electron Microscopy) measurements will be used to check uniformity of the material prepared together with the study of structural defects, composition uniformity, doping distribution and relations between the infrared absorption and incorporation of doping species.
The Institute of the SLOVAK ACADEMY OF SCIENCES was established in 1954. The scientific focus was later moved slowly towards basic research into III-V semiconductors, mainly indium antimonide for magnetic field sensors. A wide exploitation of various vacuum deposition techniques for the deposition of thin metal, semiconductor and superconductor layers and layered structures began at that time. The Institute established relatively broad personal contacts with many research centres and universities in western European countries. This provided a very good starting position for intensive scientific cooperation after the social and economic changes in 1989/90. The INSTITUTE OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING is a governmental research institution. The number of staff is about ninety. This includes about 40 scientists with a PhD degree and 25 engineers. The rest are PhD students, and technical and administration staff. The main current research area of the Institute is studying the preparation and transport properties of semiconductors and superconductors. A substantial part of this research is supported by its own technological facilities, mainly by MOCVD (Metallorganic Chemical Vapour Deposition) technology used for the preparation of epitaxial layers, layered structures and hetero-structures. The MOCVD laboratory at the IEE was established in July 1993. It operates AIXTRON AIX-202 R&D epitaxial equipment. This is a standard research-oriented apparatus allowing for the growth of III-V semiconductor epitaxial layers and advanced hetero-structures on GaAs, GaP, InAs and InP substrates. Structural characteristics of the films and multi-layers prepared are studied using standard methods such as X-ray diffraction, transition electron microscopy, TEM. Optical characterisation of semiconductors, semiconductor epitaxial layers and hetero-structures is provided by application of low temperature photoluminescence, photoreflectance and transmission measurements. Electronic transport properties of the thin films and hetero-structures are studied in a wide range from 1.5 K up to room temperature and in magnetic fields up to 14 T. Patterning of semiconductor, metallic and oxide multi-layers is routinely performed in the Institute. The films, structures, microsystems and processed devices are examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Scientific activities of the Institute are very intensive. In recent years, the number of scientific publications reported in the Science Citation Index ranged from 59 to 72, which is an average of 1.3 to 1.8 publications per scientist. More than 60% of the publications had the first author from the Institute showing that the main contribution to those publications came from the Institute. However, at least 50% of the publications are co-authored by researchers from EUROPEAN UNION countries. This underlines the strong links of the Institute with laboratories in the EUROPEAN UNION. More than 200 contributions were presented at international scientific conferences over the last three years.
VISION CONTROL GMBH (V&C)
DR. ENG. JUERGEN GEFFE > C.E.O.
Organisation type > SME
WORK PACKAGE 8 Design and computation of the micro-optical lens system (WP-leader: VISION & CONTROL GMBH) WORK PACKAGE 10 Developing evaluation board (WP-leader: VISION & CONTROL GMBH) The activities of the optical company are focused on: - designing the micro-optical system targeted to the following reference applications for measurement: film thickness, adhesion, film quality during PVD coating processes of tools and components by means of a deep infrared sensor and adequate VGF GaP lense. Operating conditions: low sampling rate and covering a temperature field up to 400 degrees Celsius, and temperature conditions at the operating site of the chipping tools when running manufacturing processes within a range of temperatures up to 1,200 degrees Celsius. - computing the VGF GaP optical lens system in all optical transmission stages (whole system). The application-oriented construction of the lens system requires the simulation of infrared ray tracing under different conditions and parameters. By experienced staff and powerful simulation technique the company is capable of handling this complex objective.
The company is dealing with a Component System matched to the cameras and also to lighting, telecentric lenses from micro to telephoto for cameras with a sensor size of up to 1 inch, and entocentric lenses of different quality classes in a fine gradation for cameras with a sensor size of up to 1 inch. The company is in a position to handle a wide variety of imaging tasks, and is mechanically robust and equipped with locking screws and mounting elements. They are able to meet customers' specific requirements. In this context, the company is experienced in the field of infrared image processing and capable of computing complete lens systems. For this purpose, a powerful computational tool covers a wide range of optical spectrums, right through to infrared. The following scientific and technical achievements should also be highlighted: - the image processing system PICTOR (measuring machine in camera system) - the embedded-PC based multi camera image processing system VICOSYS PPC with industry capable camera, - optical drill hole inspection resulting from the European project 'CONTOUR' (IST-1999-20188); - the largest worldwide telecentric inspection lens (VICOTAR - Inspect).
INSTITUTE OF ELECTRONIC MATERIALS TECHNOLOGY (ITME)
DR. ENG. ANDRZEJ HRUBAN > HEAD FO DEPARTMENT SEMICONDUCTOR COMPOUNDS
Organisation type > Research Institute
WORK PACKAGE 3 Producing Czochralski GaP for comparing measurements (WP-Leader: ITME, Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, Warsaw) ITME owns technology and modern pullers for AIIIBV (GaAs, InP, GaP) crystals growing using the LEC method under inert gas pressure in the range 1-100atm. They are equipped with: - multiheater systems allowing for modification of thermal fields in Czochralski chambers, - temperature measurements allowing for measurement of dynamic changes and fluctuations of temperature in the system: melt - B2O3 encapsulant-inert gas atmosphere, - high accuracy crystal and crucible translation and rotation systems. We propose the following work in GaP crystal pulling using the Czochralski (LEC) method: - growth of undoped 2-inch diameter crystals with orientation  or  and carrier concentration < 2x10exp16cmexp-3, - growth of undoped 2-inch diameter semi-insulating crystals (SI) with orientation  or  and resistivity > 10exp7 Ohmcm, - growth of Cr-doped semi-insulating 2-inch crystals with orientation  or  and resistivity > 10exp8cm, - growth of 3-inch GaP crystals with required parameters described on the basis of 2-inch crystal investigations. WORK PACKAGE 4.2 Subtask in physical and chemical analysis of the VGF-GaP materials (WP-Leader: SAW, SLOVAKIAN ACADEMY OF SCIENCE, Bratislava) Characterisation of GaP crystals and wafers is carried out by ITME according to ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials) and semi standards using the following methods: - measurement of Hall parameters in a temperature of 300K and in the range of 4,400K, - measurement of resistivity and carrier concentration distribution along the diameter, - absorption measurements in the wavelength range 175nm - 50 microns, - measurement of C concentration from absorption on local vibration mode (LVM) - FTIR - Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (undoped semiconducting or SI GaP), - photoluminescence and X-ray testing, - crystallographic structure evaluation using the selective chemical etching method (EPD, precipitates), and scanning electron microscopy, - purity assessment from optical and electrical measurements and through SSMS, ICP (Intrinsically Conductive Polymer), GDMS, SIMS (Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy) analysis. WORK PACKAGE 7 Polishing wafers and optical components (WP-Leader: ITME, Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, Warsaw) ITME is experienced in mechanical and mechanical-chemical treatments of GaP. Typical parameters of 2-inch polished wafers fulfil SEMI standards: Thickness: 300 +/-20 microns - 400 +/-20 microns Orientation  or  TTV = 5 microns, Bow = 5 microns, Ra = 10 Amperes Wafers are one or two side polished. We have also some experiences with polishing 3-inch, orientation  wafers.
The Institute is the leading Polish government Institute working on research and development of material technologies, and applications of these materials in devices for use in electronics, microsystems and optoelectronics. These technologies are transferred to the industry or integrated with the small-scale production of advanced materials, devices and components within the Institute. ITME is growing crystals of semiconductors (Si, III/V, SiC, others) and optical, piezoelectric (oxide crystals) materials. It also manufactures super-pure metals, active glasses and optical fibres, and new ceramic and composite materials, which have unique properties and a wide range of applications. The Institute develops epitaxial structures and state of art, electronic and optoelectronic devices. ITME has an impressive list of divisions and products: - Laboratory of Characterisation of High Purity Materials. - Department of Micro-structural Analyses. - Department of Ceramics and Seals Technology. - Department of Silicon Technology. - Department of Semiconductor Compounds Technology. - Laser Laboratory. - Department of Chemical Technologies and Environmental Protection. - Glass Laboratory. - Silicon Epitaxy Laboratory. - Semiconductor Compounds Epitaxy Laboratory. - Department of Thick Films Technology. - Department of Oxide Single Crystals Technology. - Department of AIIIBV Materials Applications. - Department of Piezo-electronics. The activity of ITME in Semiconductor Compounds Technology includes problems of synthesis, mono-crystallisation, mechanical treatment, and property characterisation of such materials as: GaAs, GaP, InP, InAs, InSb. In this field, we carry out research and small-scale production. We have over 25 years of experience in technology and characterisation of AIIIBV compounds. Recently we have concentrated on research and development for obtaining semi-insulating GaAs, GaP and InP mono-crystals and wafers. The main attention is placed on synthesis and crystal growth process improvement. As the result, we described effective technologies for obtaining big GaAs mono-crystals - 3 to 4-inch diameter and 8 to 10-kg weight and length of about 300mm, 2-inch diameter InP crystals, and 2-inch diameter GaP. We possess the theoretical knowledge and know-how for: - purification of Ga, In, Te, Sb, Al, Cu elements (distillation, zone melting) 5N-6N, - boric oxide B2O3 manufacturing, - synthesis of GaAs, GaP, InP, InAs, InSb in a closed quartz ampoule by injection and 'in-situ' methods, - crystal growth of the above mentioned compounds using Horizontal Bridgman, HPLEC or/and LPLEC methods, - thermal annealing of crystals and wafers (defects engineering), - mechanical treatment of crystals and wafers, - characterisation.
GFE - GESELLSCHAFT FUER FERTIGUNGSTECHNIK UND ENTWICKLUNG E.V.
GRAD. ENG. HEINZ-WOLFGANG LAHMANN > HEAD OF DEPARTMENT MEASUREMENT/TEST ENGINEERING
Organisation type > Research Institute
Work package 9 Development of a demonstrator platform (WP-Leader: GESELLSCHAFT FUER FERTIGUNGSTECHNIK UND ENTWICKLUNG E.V., Schmalkalden) The development and implementation of a demonstrator platform will be carried out in work package 9 in order to show the potential and the feasibility of VGF GaP based optics for infrared sensors in practice. The development of the demonstrator platform is focused on two application examples. They are very interesting for the tool and machine tool industry. The first example concerns detection and evaluation of relevant parameters for characterisation of thin hard material layers over the coating process period inside a coating device. The possibilities for integration of an infrared sensor and GaP-optic in the coating device have already been prepared. By means of a line infrared sensor and the circle movement of the coated probe in the chamber, a relatively large part of an area of probe can be detected. The sampling rate for this application is 50 Hz (Hertz). The results achieved by means of the infrared sensor based on GaP optics will be compared with measuring results of calo and scratch tests (layer thickness and adhesive strength). The second application example comprises detection of the temperature behaviour of cutting tools during the machining process. By means of the developed infrared sensor in connection with the GaP-optic, a demonstrator will be produced in order to detect the temperature on the cutting edge of cutting tools. The test will be carried out in the framework of a dry machining process (turning and milling). Previous experiences show that a temperature of maximum 1,200 degrees Celsius is to be expected. The measuring position for the detection of temperature will be fixed. This means that the feed motion is produced by the work piece and the rotary motion (milling process) by the cutting tool. As regards rotary speed, the tests need a dynamic resolution of the sensor system of 60 microseconds. The demonstrator is to be protected against chips and vibrations generated by the machining process. The working distance between the optic (including sensor) and the tool (cutting edge) should be more than 200 mm. The measuring of temperature takes place immediately after the cutting edge comes out of the material of the work piece. The temperature is measured on the cutting surface and on the flank. The synchronisation is at the moment of measuring while the position of the cutting edge is carried out by means of an optical trigger system. An important point for the determination of correct temperature values is the estimation of the temperature-emission value of cutting tool material. This necessary measuring is carried out by means of a climate chamber.
The Institute (Society for Production Engineering and Development Registered Non-Profit Organisation) in Schmalkalden (GFE) is an applied research institution for industrial requirements. The GFE operates in customer-oriented research and in consulting, as well as in service activities, and is involved in the following specialised areas: - Cutting new construction materials. - High-speed cutting, high-precision cutting, machining of hard materials. - Calculation, optimisation, construction, control, application of precision tools. - Layer development and application of new and improved wear protection by means of PVD processes. - Optimisation of preparatory and pre-treatment processes. - Development of diagnostic systems of thin layers. - Development and application of measurement and test techniques specific to the production process. - Quality assurance with ISO 9000 (International Standards Organisation). The research and development activities in the field of measuring and test techniques are focused on the tool and machine tool industry. Therefore, the 2D- and 3D-image processing (first focus) plays one of the most important roles. Different approaches and principles are applied, e.g. speckle and white light interferometry, scanning fringe projection, object and pattern recognition, and confocal microscopy. The second focus is on non-contact vibration and temperature measuring for analysis of the dynamic (own frequency analysis, damping properties, acoustic emission, modal analysis) and thermal behaviour of tools and components. The development and build up of specific test systems and devices for the machine tool and automotive industries is also a focus point in the field of measuring and test techniques. The service activity includes material testing, manufacturing of tools and of structural components, production of prototypes and parts in the CNC (Computer Numerical Control) Cutting Centre (milling, drilling, turning, grinding), control of auxiliary materials and information transfer (on-line research, patents, standards) as well as consulting services.
ACADEMY OF SCIENCES/INSTITUTE OF PLASMA PHYSICS AS CR, v.v.i.
Department of Optical Diagnostic
Inf. Jan Vaclavik > Scientific Worker
Organisation type > Research Institute
Work package 5. The aim is to develop the process and methods for optical element manufacturing from VGF GaP material. It means the entire process from precise cutting with minimal waste, through milling and grinding to the polishing and antireflective coating and protective layer deposition. Standard, commonly used methods of optical manufacturing are not applicable in the case of VGF GaP manufacturing, mainly due to two reasons. The standard mechanic-chemical polishing process uses a water emulsion of polishing powder with pitch or pad polisher and it creates optical surface oxidation. An oxidised surface cannot fulfil the hard requirements of optical surface quality. The second reason is the generation of unhealthy compounds in the manufacturing process. These gases have to be neutralised and convenient waste management has to be set, not only because of the above reasons, but also because the VGF GaP materials are expensive and even the recycled material is valuable. In order to machine the material an isolated work space with an efficient ventilation and filtration system will have to be built. Hazardous gasses are by-products of material grinding and also ethanol based emulsions polishing. It is essential to set up the systems of restrictions which is not usual in other workplaces of optical development workshops. After the preparation phase, the method of polishing optical surfaces will be designed to achieve surface accuracy dN less than /10 when measured by a spherointenterferometer. Achieved micro-roughness will be minimal. The quality of the polished surfaces will be measured by elipsometric methods or white light interferometry. Afterwards, the perfecting polishing process methods of multilayer antireflective coating will be examined within the wavelength range of 800 to 3,000 nm.
The INSTITUTE OF PLASMA PHYSICS V.V.I covers several connected workplaces oriented to the study of materials in the plasma state and enhancing material by influencing it with plasma. Thanks to the specific needs of the plasma study, the departments of optical diagnostic as well as material engineering are suitable. The Department of Optical Diagnostic is developing and manufacturing optical elements for classic, astronomic, crystal, laser, RTG and thin film optics in its optical workshop. Since 1965 the special RTG objective lenses have been developed and manufactured, as well as unique Solc type birifringent chain filters among the others. The quality of these optical systems has been proved in the Intercosmos Space Program with great success where objective lenses and filters were used for extraterrestrial solar observation. The most frequent products of the optical workshop are atypical custom designed optical elements, systems and solutions, such as objective lenses, eyepieces, telescopes and viewfinders to name just a few. These are designed by experienced optical designers which are using modern software such as Zemax and Kidger. Recent examples are spectrometer for the two meter Ondrejov telescope, or the optical system of robotic telescope for chromosphere observation, universal narrow band tuneable filter and objective lens for hot plasma observation in Tokamak. The manufacturing process in the optical workshop is based on quality craftsmanship which achieves high precision in small series production required for atypical precise optics. The surface precision is measured by a digital Fisba interferometer. Lengths are measured by the 3D DEA system and the angles by a Zeiss gonimeter with precision higher than 0.2 arc seconds. And of course a lot of measuring techniques and equipment developed in the Department of Optical Diagnostic for special purposes are used in the development workshop. Optical elements are manufactured with precision higher than /10 and micro-roughness better than 1 nm. Our workshop has experience in machining many kinds of optical materials, fused silica, zerodur, IR material like Ge and Si, crystals such as SiO2 and CaCO3 and other such materials.