The aim of the project is to elaborate ecological, high quality gasoline formulations that meet the most stringent requirements specified by the World-Wide Fuel Charter for the highest (3 and 4) categories.
The project represents an integrated approach to the optimisation of gasoline components in order to get ecological fuel for the rapidly growing motor industry. It includes both the elaboration of the gasoline formulation, containing bio-ethanol and/or other oxygenates, and also the development of an optimal additives package and its dosage in order to limit deposits formed in the engine.
The new formulations will be based on the latest world trends and local conditions simultaneously. The composition of oxygenates will be optimised, taking into consideration renewable components (bio-ethanol and ethyl ethers) and advanced additives package.
European drivers need cleaner-burning gasoline, which will effectively reduce harmful pollutant emissions and improve the air we breathe.
The tasks of the project are aimed at decreasing environmental hazards resulting from growing consumption of gasoline through improving the quality of gasoline, thus ensuring optimal performance of engines and reducing combustion chamber deposits and consequently, harmful components of exhaust gases.
The automotive industry uses more and more gasoline, which creates various environmental problems, including direct leakage into soil and groundwater, emission of gasoline vapour and also emission of toxic components of exhaust gases, especially carbon oxide, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, unconverted hydrocarbons and products of their incomplete combustion. The quality of the gasoline and also the efficient performance of engines are decisive factors that influence toxic and harmful components of exhaust gases. An important issue is the purity of particular parts of the engines. Thus, one of the directions in the development of motor gasoline is a reduction in the formation of deposits.
The amount of deposits formed during motor operation depends mainly on the composition of the gasoline. The content of components, which easily undergo polymerisation and coking (low molecular olefins, aromatic compounds), should be limited. Another important factor is the appropriate content and composition of oxygenates. The most widely used oxygenates are ethers (Methyl-ter-Butyl Ether (MTBE), TAME, ETBE (Ethyl Tertiary Butyl Ether), TAEE) synthesized from C4 or C5 olefin fractions and relevant alcohols. The increased application of ethyl ethers and bio-ethanol will be especially advantageous for ecological reasons, as it leads to a decrease in the content of petroleum-based hydrocarbons and to the broader use of renewable resources.
Detergent package is another important issue. The addition of detergents allows the removal of deposits and the engine to be kept clean. The new generation packages contain surface-active substances and synthetic oil carriers. The composition of such packages and its dosing into gasoline require careful consideration and optimisation in order to obtain appropriate effects. The ideal package shall efficiently remove deposits in inlet valves and then undergo complete combustion in the engine chamber, without enhancing the amount of deposits. According to the Worldwide Fuel Charter April 2000, the category of the gasoline is determined, among others, by the amount of deposits formed in inlet valves and the combustion chamber.
Multifunctional deposit control additives predicted for service in the highest quality fuels must be carefully selected to meet multiple demands. The intake valve deposit performance must not be the expense of the combustion chamber deposit performance or no-harm performance such as corrosion, demulsification, crankcase oil compatibility or the bulk fuel distribution system integrity. The additive must perform in the most modern engine designs, such as direct injection spark-ignited engines.
The worldwide efforts are directed to all possible aspects: modification of the construction motors, development and implementation of new, better catalytic systems for purification of exhaust gases and also to the improvement of the quality of gasoline.
This project is focused on the improvement of gasoline by:
- Optimisation of the composition of the base gasoline, especially of the content of particular components in the oxygenates mixture to minimise the amount of deposits formed in the engine,
- Optimisation of the detergent package and its dosing in order to fulfil Worldwide Fuel Charter requirements for the highest (3 and 4) grades of gasoline.
The project will be carried out in cooperation with research and industrial partners, who will contribute to its execution bringing their different and complementary expertise, experience and knowledge:
INSTYTUT CIEZKIEJ SYNTEZY ORGANICZNEJ 'BLACHOWNIA' (Institute of Heavy Organic Synthesis) - ICSO - will coordinate the project and perform research in the scope of the synthesis of gasoline oxygen components and polyethers as oil carriers for the detergent package.
INSTYTUT TECHNOLOGII NAFTY (Institute of Petroleum Processing) ITN - will develop and test new oxygen components and gasoline additives.
PKN ORLEN S.A - will evaluate and produce ecological motor gasoline.
LUBRIZOL INTERNATIONAL LABORATORIES - will provide formulation work relating to the laboratory evaluation of components, and will undertake engine testing of selected components in various gasoline grades.
ICSO industrial partners located in Kedzierzyn-Koyle will also be involved:
PETROCHEMIA BLACHOWNIA SA in Kedzierzyn-Koyle - producer of gasoline oxygen components, will support the research performed in the Institute by providing raw materials (bio-ethanol and other components) for its work.
SYNTEZA SA in Kedzierzyn-Koyle - producer of alkylphenols and arylpolyether as components of gasoline additive package, will perform industrial tests of new kinds of polyethers developed in the course of the project.
Keywords: gasoline additives, oxygenates.