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Biopreparations and fertilisers promoting decomposition of organic matter and increasing the suppressivity of soil.

Development and production of biopreparations and a new
generation of organo-mineral fertilisers promoting
decomposition of post-harvest residues/straw, improving soil
properties/increasing supperssivity of soil environment.

The objective of this research project is the development of molasses-based organomineral fertilisers enriched with biological preparations supporting the decomposition of straw and post-harvest residues, improving the nutritive effects of applied compounds and increasing the suppressivity of the soil environment. The structure of both plant and animal production was significantly transformed along with changes in economic conditions of farms. The number of farms without animal production and/or without a need of straw is continuously increasing, the assortment of crops reduces and the percentage of cereals and oil plants increases. This results in an increased production of straw which remains on fields as a source of organic matter required for the maintenance of soil fertility. On the one hand, the use of straw as organic fertilising represents an important contribution to hte maintenance of soil fertility but, on the other, it is also associated with a number of negative effects on subsequent crops. The negative effects of application of straw on subequent crops are manifested more expressively under dry agroecological conditions and in systems with minimum tillage when the ploughing is replaced by soil rotavation and/or loosening. Problems occur when establishing the subsequent crops because the presence of great amounts of straw residues on soil surface and in the sowing layer impairs the quality of newly established stands. Phytotoxic substances that are produced during the process of straw decomposition inhibit germination and initial growth of young plants. Moreover, straw and post- harvest residues create favourable conditions for survival and development of pathogenous microorganisms. One of the possible ways how to reduce negative effects of straw application is to accelerate its decomposition in the period between growing of individual crops. This decomposition is promoted above all by a balancing of C/N ratio in straw by the supply of nitrogen in form of mineral fertilisers and/or liquid manure. Another possibilty is the application of organomineral fertilisers (e. g. Beta-LIQ) that are based on molasses residues enriched with minerals and other (e.g. humus) substances. Their aplication on straw increases the content of easily available organic substances, equilibrates the C/N ratio, and thus improves activities of microobial populations occurring in soil. This effect is also supported by the viscosity of these fertilisers that stick on straw and post-harvest residues. In addition to major changes (i. e. supply of nutrients and acceleration of straw decompostion) an increased microbial activity shows also some secondary effects that are manifested above all in a better 'self- cleaning' capacity of soil (e. g. due to an increased germination of weed seeds and/or accelerated decomposition of heterogenous substances). Molasses residues represent a by-product that has not yet been used in a suitable alternative way. However, because of their composition, they could be used in agricultural production for fertilising of plants. Molasses residues can be used either directly without any processing or in the form of organomineral fertilisers. The company REDAM LTD. produces organomineral fertilisers based on molasses residues and enriched with P and Mg ions and humus substances under the commercial name BETA-LIQ. This product is used in agricultural practice either as a basic fertiliser of field crops or (due to their positive effect on decomposition of organic substances) as an accelerator of straw liquidation directly on the field. At present, the first practical results are available as well as data from field and laboratory experiments showing that the application of molasses residues is better than the traditional method of application of mineral fertilisers to straw. The composition and properties of molasses residues enable to develop new preparations that accelerate the decomposition of straw and enable to enrich the soil with useful biological agents increasing the suppressivity of soil environment. At persent, organomineral fertilisers based on molasses residues increase microbial activities of soil above all due to their content of compounds enabling the development of soil microflora. After their supplementation with biological components specialised on decomposition of organic matter it is possible to expect acceleration of straw decomposition on the one hand and improvement in composition of soil microbial populations (with a possible suppression of phytopathogenous microbes) on the other. The project is based on the use of strains of some important species of entomopathogenous fungi, saprophytic fungi (Trichoderma), bacteria (Bacilus subtilis) and fixators of atmospheric nitrogen. When testing the new generation of biological fertilisers not only the existing biopreparations will be evaluated (e. g. Trichomil and Prominent - manufactured by the company BIOMO that should participate in this project) but also new strains of fungi with corresponding properties. The project also involves an elaboration of technology of artificial cultivation of fibrous fungi and final production of standard preparations that can be used either in newly developed biofertilisers or directly on the field. The development of new biological preparatipons and fertilisers will be supplemented with extensive testing of their effects on decomposition of organic substances, changes in soil environment, suppressivity of soil environment, self-cleaning capability of soil and on growth, development and yields of field crops. It can be expected that the obtained results will contribute to a rational utilisation of a by-product (molasses residues), to solving of problems associated with liquidation of straw on fields, to an improvement of health condition of soil, to a reduction of pesticide application and to the improvement of methods of sustainable farming. Application of these new biopreparations and biofertilisers will not be limited only to the territory of the CZECH and SLOVAK REPUBLICS. Regarding analogical changes in structure of plant and animal production and environmental tendencies it can be expected that they will be used also in countries of the EUROPEAN UNION. Keywords: biopreparation, fertiliser, ecology
Acronym: 
ECOFERT
Project ID: 
2 718
Start date: 
09-10-2001
Project Duration: 
51months
Project costs: 
450 000.00€
Technological Area: 
Agro chemicals
Market Area: 

Raising the productivity and competitiveness of European businesses through technology. Boosting national economies on the international market, and strengthening the basis for sustainable prosperity and employment.