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Micropropagation of tree and herbaceous peonies

Development of the physiological basis for the in vitro propagation of tree and herbaceous peonies and implementation of a method for peony micropropagation.

INTRODUCTION Herbaceous and tree peonies are landscape species belonging to the family Paeoniaceae. They are native to north temperate regions (Europe, Asia Minor, CHINA, north-western AMERICA). The tree peony has been in cultivation in CHINA for thousands of years. Herbaceous and tree peonies have been grown as garden and outdoor cut flowers in Europe and the U.S.A. for many years. They are valued for their beautiful flowers. Because conventional propagation of peonies is very difficult and time consuming, their propagation in vitro has been attempted. Several authors reported successful in vitro shoot multiplication of different cultivars of Peonia suffruticosa and P. lactiflora but during ex vitro establishment, the plantlets become dormant and their overall survival rate in the greenhouse was very low (Hosoki et al. 1989, Kunneman and Alberts 1989, Harris and Mantell 1991, Bouza et al. 1994a,b Gabryszewska 1998). It has been shown that the mitotic activity of tree peony (P. suffruticosa) shoots propagated in vitro decreased during root induction and microplants did not develop ex vitro. A cold treatment reactivated shoot development, which was associated with a decrease in endogenous abscisic acid (ABA) levels and accumulation of indolacetic acid (IAA) in the shoots and cytokinins in the roots (Bouza et al.1994c). However, cold-induced shoot development was only temporary: only one or two new leaves were formed, it did not elongate and no axillary buds were formed. It was correlated with a rapid decrease in cytokinins and IAA contents and accumulation of the ABA (Bouza et al. 1994c). The onset of dormancy during the multiplication phase of the herbaceous peony cv. Jadwiga propagated in vitro was also observed (Gabryszewska, 2001a). Induction of dormancy was stimulated by high temperatures, auxins and high levels of carbohydrates, whereas fluridone (inhibitor of ABA biosynthesis), gibberellin and cold treatment influenced its release (Gabryszewska 2001a, b). These results suggest that the mechanism of hormone homeostasis was affected during in vitro propagation of peony shoots, and this metabolic perturbation persists also after their transfer to a greenhouse (Bouza et al. 1994c). OBJECTIVES 1. To elucidate the mechanism of hormonal and environmental control of peony organogenesis in vitro and ex vitro plantlets growth and development. 2. To develop and implement a technology for the micropropagation of selected cultivars of peony. PROJECT WORKPLAN 1. The comparison of regeneration abilities of different cultivars of tree and herbaceous peonies in tissue cultures. 2. The characterization of hormonal, nutritional and environmental (light, temperature) factors that affect in vitro culture establishment, morphogenesis and post-culture growth of tree and herbaceous peony. 3. The analyses of endogenous hormone levels and metabolism (IAA, ABA, gibberellins, ethylene) at different phases of growth and development of peony in vitro and post culture. 4. The identification of physiological and biochemical markers for microplants development, growth and adaptation in the greenhouse (for example endogenous hormone level, sugar content, oxidative enzyme activities, pro-oxidant levels). 5. The morphological and histological study of tree and herbaceous peonies at different stages of their in vitro development and post-culture growth. 6. The development of micro-propagation methods suitable for the commercial propagation of selected cultivars of tree and herbaceous peonies. 7. The implementation of peony micro-propagation methods in commercial laboratories. REFERENCES Bouza L., Jacques M., Miginiac E. 1994a. Scientia Hort. 57:241-251 Bouza L., Jacques M., Sotta B., Miginiac E.1994b. Plant Growth Regul. 15:69-73 Bouza L., Jacques M., Sotta B., Miginiac E.1994c. T. Plant Science 97:153-160 Gabryszewska E. 1998. Jour. Fruit. Ornam. Plant Res.3/4:157-168 Gabryszewska E. 2001a. Acta Hort. 560: 407-410 Gabryszewska E. 2001b. COST Action 843, Quality enhancement of plant production through tissue culture, Annual Meeting, 18-20 October 2001, Rome, ITALY, (Abstr.) 82-83 Harris R.A., Mantell S.H.1991. J. Hort. Sci. 66: 95-102 Hosoki T., Ando M., Kubara T., Hamada M., Itami M. 1989. Plant Cell Rep. 8: 243-246 Kunneman B.P.A.M., Alberts M.R.J. 1989. Bloembollencultuur 100: 16-17 Keywords: paeonia, propagation, in vitro.
Acronym: 
PEONYMICROPROP
Project ID: 
3 117
Start date: 
06-05-2003
Project Duration: 
36months
Project costs: 
400 000.00€
Technological Area: 
Plant selection/production technology
Market Area: 
Viticulture and Fruit Tree Cultivation

Raising the productivity and competitiveness of European businesses through technology. Boosting national economies on the international market, and strengthening the basis for sustainable prosperity and employment.