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Advanced methods to identify modern textile fibres

Aims to investigate the physical and chemical properties of some modern textile fibres in order to develop advanced methods and norms for distinguishing them from raw materials and woven fabrics.

The purpose of this project is to help textile SMEs (Small and Medium-sized Enterprises) analyse new man-made fibres and their mixing with natural fibres destined for garments and technical textiles. For the protection of consumers and the general population, the EUROPEAN UNION adopted Directive 96/74/CE for textile names and Directive 97/37/CE which are to be included in the national legislation of all countries. Producers must have the composition of their products that have to be controlled by an authority. Nowadays it is very difficult to identify different types of fibres because many are new fibres with new proprieties or modified fibres from producers who want to protect their brand or invention. Even though they may come from a known group of fibres, they do not have the same thermal behaviour, melting point or solubility as classic fibres etc. The same is true for the effects of finishing treatments. At the same time, there are no international standard methods for identifying these new yarns. There is the "Directive 96/73/EC from the European Parliament and Council from 16 December 1996 on certain methods of quantitative analysis on binary textile fibre mixtures (Official Journal L 32, 3.2.1997). It makes provision for 15 methods for quantitative analysis of certain binary textile fibre mixtures. It is based on an ISO (International Standards Organisation) standard (ISO 1833) adopted in 1984. Since then many changes have occurred in fibre production. The directive proposed, in the case of binary mixtures for which there is no uniform method of analysis at the Community level, that the laboratory responsible for testing may use any valid method at its disposal". In such a case, the testing laboratories have difficulties in identifying such fibres. Council Directive 73/44/EEC on quantitative analysis of ternary textile fibre mixtures also includes a small number of mixtures, and underlines that in some cases the indicated method is only valid for certain chloro-fibres, or certain other fibres. Therefore the objectives of this project are to develop identification methods of textile mono-materials and blends with accuracy of over 90% and to optimise the methods for specific classes of blends. Today, manufactured textile fibres have many types of chemical structures and finishes and the majority of production processes are new. Recently it has therefore been very difficult to identify the different types of fibres because many them have been modified. It is well known that producing synthetic fibres and yarns is almost impossible without applying a finish to the fibres during the extrusion and spinning process. Every finish consists of different components depending on the end use of the yarn being manufactured. In general, finishes contain lubricants, emulsifiers, antistatic agents and other components. Research and Technological Development will generate innovative standard methods based on modern techniques and equipment for identifying the following fibres and yarns: wool fibres; cellulosic, aramide, elastane etc. The goal of this project is to develop innovative standard methods for identifying fibres through combining classic techniques with modern and non-destructive techniques: - specific weight; - moisture uptake; - water retention value; - chemical behaviour; - gas chromatography; - FTIR-ATR (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy-ATR), IR (Infrared), Raman, UV-VIS (Ultra-Violet - VIS) spectroscopy for specific absorbance of chemical compounds and specific groups; - scanning electronic microscopy for microstructure of surfaces and cross-section analyses; - Thermo-gravimetric Analysis (TGA) for thermal stability, glass transition temperature and degradation temperature. This project will develop a database with new fibres, yarns and chemical compounds which will be structured by: denomination of fibres, yarns/chemical structure/commercial denomination/producer/applications. The new methods will be used for: - establishing and verifying textile composition and labels; - textile product inspection organisms; - textile product certification organisms; - consumer protection. The fact that literature still does not offer much in the way of identifying modern textile fibres indeed contributes to the idea of innovation. The software used to process the analytical data is a key element in identification technologies and will be further improved to make this tool even more powerful. Further improvements such as increased analysis and identification speed and the combinations of various methods will enable the industry to advance identification capabilities. Keywords: fibre identification, textile fibres, textile label.
Acronym: 
FIBRIN
Project ID: 
3 272
Start date: 
01-06-2004
Project Duration: 
67months
Project costs: 
1 520 000.00€
Technological Area: 
Textiles Technology
Market Area: 
Textiles (synthetic and natural)

Raising the productivity and competitiveness of European businesses through technology. Boosting national economies on the international market, and strengthening the basis for sustainable prosperity and employment.