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Multifuel-polygeneration for distributed heating and cooling applications

Development of appropriate heating and cooling devices for the decentralised energetic use of waste biomass from agriculture and forestry in central and eastern europe.

1. BACKGROUND In the EU-25 an estimated 55 million tonnes of dry biomass are available as a potential CO2-neutral heat source. Only a smaller fraction of this potential is woody biomass. This figure is based on the assumption that 20+ACU- of straw and 20-45+ACU- for other agricultural waste has been used as food or bedding for animals, or ploughed back into fields. In the production of wheat for instance, the surplus straw is often incinerated in open fires emitting vast amounts of products of incomplete combustion such as particulates and hydrocarbons. However, heating and cooling are needed in rural or remote areas. 2. PRIMARY PROJECT OBJECTIVES In rural settlements of SERBIA AND MONTENEGRO, an example for other South Eastern European countries, the heating energy supply with sustainable fuels could be greatly increased by using straw to heat boilers and ovens. From a yearly amount of 9.55 million tons of crop-residues (straw and similar) mostly burned in open fires, an estimated 32+ACU- or 40,000 TJ could be used as a CO2-neutral heat-energy source. Additionally, vineyard-crop-residues could account for 13,000 TJ. This amount of energy would be as much as roughly 50+ACU- of the residential heat demand of SERBIA AND MONTENEGRO (10.6 million inhabitants). Planned action in the Balkan Region and assisted by UKRAINE: A) A modern and clean combustion system for a multiple biomass (straw/wood) shall be developed. This includes the logistics aspects - for instance, if it makes economical sense to use pelletised fuels only. B) This workpackage contains field-testing of the unit, which includes studies of acceptance and awareness campaigns for the modern use of biomass resources. C) The secondary measures developed for emission avoidance and reduction developed in the Swiss workpackages shall be implemented in combination with the tested non-wood fuels. The aim of this part of the project is focused on the development and promotion processes for the energetic use of waste biomass from food production and to a lesser extent the promotion of energy-crops. In SWITZERLAND, a growing market for midsized woodpellets-heatplants (for SME (Small and Medium-sized Enterprise) and multi-family houses and blocks of flats) demands optimised devices, as the state-of-the-art strategy is the economically inefficient use of converted woodchip-boilers. Furthermore, the growing awareness of particulate matter emissions (especially the physiologically relevant nanoparticles) promotes the pro-active development of economically efficient strategies to reduce particle emissions significantly. As a third point, the project aims to apply best practice and carry out new research in the field on non-wood-biomass-fuels. In SWITZERLAND for instance, the residues from milling processes (flour production) is in line with the 2003 wood-pellet production (20,000 t/a). These residues were pressed to pellets and used as cattle-feed in the past - this is no longer possible because of new regulations. The R+-D in combustion technology and particle avoidance will of course cover the best practice for the avoidance of potential dioxin-building substances, a topic of importance for many non-wood-biomass-fuels. The Swiss R+-D-part of the project will be the development of 50 to 150 kW clean multifuel burner systems (wood-pellets/flour-pellets/oilseed-residues) with a minimised electrostatic precipitation system applying ion-blast technology. In GERMANY the UNIVERSITY OF DRESDEN will contribute with its vast experience in gasification and CFD-simulation (Computational Fluid Dynamics) of gasification and combustion and will in exchange profit from the biomass combustion experience of FATSE and BIOMASS Kiev. 3. FUTURE PERSPECTIVE The mentioned potential of non-wood biomass resources in Europe combined with the increasing energy demands and the rising awareness of dust-emissions from wood-combustion (in SWITZERLAND, more than 50+ACU- of the neighbourhood complaints are due to smoke-emissions from wood compliances) demands the development of decentralised heat or poly-generation plants that meet the increased demands concerning emission avoidance and fuel flexibility. In all countries mentioned the use of biomass for heat production and poly-generation is an emerging market. Besides co-generation (combined heat and power CHP), combined heat and cooling (H/C) is an especially interesting and economically beneficial option for the waste energy from agricultural processes. This project offers a positive perspective for further integration of sustainable development, sound agriculture and energy supply. Keywords: biomass, combustion, cooling.
Acronym: 
BIOPOLY HEAT
Project ID: 
3 414
Start date: 
01-06-2005
Project Duration: 
31months
Project costs: 
750 000.00€
Technological Area: 
Solid biomass
Market Area: 
Co-generation

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