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Development of biological filters for gaseous emissions

Development of biological filters for gaseous emissions has
been launched. The implementation to initial exploitation
and up to full exploitation will include a new partner, the
pulp and paper institute from poland.

The basic concept of production of material for biological filters has been developed by FIBER INVENT AB. The material is produced in a forming process where fibres of uniform size are shaped into a fibre mat of chosen shape and in a cost effective manner. The characteristics of the material include fibres that are homogeneous in size, porous and hydrophilic. The size of the fibres in presently produced samples are a few mm in length but can be adapted in length to various requirements. One of the advantages of the forming process is that it is possible to include in the material additional substances such as buffers, nutrient solutions, trace elements or pre-fermented cultures of bacteria for different filtration applications. Based on produced samples of material from the forming process, it has been considered advantageous to apply this technique to the market of gas filtration with biological filters. A great demand has developed for the reduction of emissions of organic compounds to the external environment. Characteristically, these emissions are very low concentrations in large air flows. Efforts to reduce these emissions involve substantial investments in purification plants, which in turn increase the production costs for industry and thus weaken its ability to compete. The development possibilities for established techniques are limited (adsorbent type active carbon, zeolites, polymers, and catalytic and thermal combustion). On the other hand, the possibilities of development within the field of biological gas treatment are wide open. Even at the present early stage of development, biological gas treatment is far more cost effective compared with established techniques within its field of application. Basic research - reported: In this project, the know-how basis has been extended and the BIO FILTER technique, including the Biofilter and Trickling Filter, have been studied. This includes the raw gas treatment prior to filter entry, micro-organisms, system configuration, filter bed material and mathematical simulation models. Activities include: 1. Study of mass transport from the gas into the biofilm on the fibre material. 2. The study, by means of simulation and models, of nutrition transport from the biofilm into the cell. The rate of metabolism varies according to different chemical compounds. The organic compounds which are the easiest and fastest to be metabolised are such as are normally included in the carbon cycle and also physically small enough to penetrate the cell membrane. The metabolism rate for organic compounds with more than six carbon atoms depend to some extent on the multitude of enzyme system involved but mostly on the water solubility of the molecules. All microbial metabolism presumes that the organic compounds are soluble in water. In designing the parameters for fibre matrixes, the following aspects have been taken into consideration: - low cost of fibre material to be competitive on the market - physical stability under bioprocessing conditions - hydrophilic material to keep a high water content for micro-organisms - % moisture content - specific surface area m2/g - large surface for micro-organism growth - good sorpative qualities - degradability of organic fibres. Furthermore, the streaming pattern, which also depends on the the off-gas flow rate is important for the mass transfer from the gas phase into the water film on the particle. Initial Exploitation Phase (this phase): The production of pulp balls with a specified physical stability as a function of humidity and their processing to obtain porous granules with a large surface area. This activity will take place at the PULP & PAPER INSTITUTE in POLAND.
Acronym: 
BIFIGAS
Project ID: 
545
Start date: 
01-05-1991
Project Duration: 
68months
Project costs: 
1 500 000.00€
Technological Area: 
Market Area: 

Raising the productivity and competitiveness of European businesses through technology. Boosting national economies on the international market, and strengthening the basis for sustainable prosperity and employment.